To make a fair comparison of the prevalence of rape in different countries, it would be necessary to compare like with like. However, differing legal definitions of rape, under-reporting of rape and sexual assault, and different recording methods hamper international comparisons. A number of these difficulties were highlighted in a recent Foreign Policy article and in previous Africa Check reports on crime.

The first stumbling block is that legal definitions of rape differ from country to country.

South African law states that any person who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with another person without consent is guilty of the offence of rape. Because of this broad definition, South African law recognises the rape of men and boys. Many other countries, such as India and Singapore do not.

And in South Africa spousal rape is a crime at any age, but in India it is not illegal unless the woman is younger than fifteen, while in Singapore a man is only guilty of marital rape if his wife is living away from him.

Different definitions of rape mean any international rankings will be fundamentally flawed.

Rape offences are counted differently

In addition to different definitions, countries have different methods of counting and recording rape.

In the United Kingdom, for example, if two men push a woman into a bedroom and both rape her, it will count as one crime with the offenders acting together.

However, in South Africa, each act of penetration is a separate crime. “The law is very straight when it comes to counting rapes. Each and every penetration should count as a rape,” Chris de Kock, a crime analyst, consultant and retired South African police major-general, told Africa Check.

In effect this means that the number of rapes recorded in some countries is based on the number of victims and in the others on the number of criminal acts committed.

Under-reporting rates are unknown For comparisons to be valid, the countries would also have to have similar levels of the reporting of rape.

It is an accepted fact in most countries that rape statistics are not an accurate reflection of the actual number of rapes that take place. A large proportion of rapes go unreported.

But the rate of under-reporting varies from country to country.

Recently the UK Statistics Authority stripped UK police statistics of their official status, following claims that the Metropolitan police had been under-reporting sexual offences by as much as 25 percent.n South Africa, a study in 2010 by Gender Links and the Medical Research Council found that in South Africa’s Gauteng province only one in 13 women reported non-partner rape and overall only one in 25 rapes had been reported to the police.

Given these variables “no international comparisons will be accurate,” Lizette Lancaster, manager of the Institute for Security Studies crime and justice hub, told Africa Check.

soafrolicious:

Alev Karakartal, is an Afro-Turk woman who now lives in Istanbul. Speaking at a conference there in early June 2012, she described the strategy with which many Afro-Turks confront discrimination. “By entering into mixed marriages,” she said, “Afro-Turks try to have lighter-skinned children, so that eventually their colour will disappear altogether.” But Olpak responds, “We have nothing else left aside from the colour. There’s nothing left culturally any more.”
When Karakartal, who is herself of mixed descent, asked her parents about her origins, the answer was always, “We are Turks and Muslims,” and that roots weren’t important.
In Olpak’s autobiography, he wrote, “The first generation has the experiences, the second generation denies them, and the third generation researches into them.” That certainly applies to the Afro-Turks. Karakartal eventually started researching herself, and found the reasons for the shame and the silence.
"Our ancestors didn’t come voluntarily to Anatolia," she notes. "They were sold as slaves, exploited, abused and excluded." But it’s not just the families themselves who remain silent. Olpak points out. "Nobody speaks about us, otherwise, if they were to tell our story, they would find themselves in conflict with the official version of history. One would have to speak about slavery."

soafrolicious:

Alev Karakartal, is an Afro-Turk woman who now lives in Istanbul. Speaking at a conference there in early June 2012, she described the strategy with which many Afro-Turks confront discrimination. “By entering into mixed marriages,” she said, “Afro-Turks try to have lighter-skinned children, so that eventually their colour will disappear altogether.” But Olpak responds, “We have nothing else left aside from the colour. There’s nothing left culturally any more.”

When Karakartal, who is herself of mixed descent, asked her parents about her origins, the answer was always, “We are Turks and Muslims,” and that roots weren’t important.

In Olpak’s autobiography, he wrote, “The first generation has the experiences, the second generation denies them, and the third generation researches into them.” That certainly applies to the Afro-Turks. Karakartal eventually started researching herself, and found the reasons for the shame and the silence.

"Our ancestors didn’t come voluntarily to Anatolia," she notes. "They were sold as slaves, exploited, abused and excluded." But it’s not just the families themselves who remain silent. Olpak points out. "Nobody speaks about us, otherwise, if they were to tell our story, they would find themselves in conflict with the official version of history. One would have to speak about slavery."

Anonymous asked: why do black women feel the need to wear weave?

blackgirlwhiteboylove:

black--lamb:

hmm

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idk maybe because of shit like this

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or this

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……

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*sigh*

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noticing a trend….

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instead of asking “why black women feel the need to wear weaves” let’s ask “why black women have been made to feel that they need a weave in the first place”….

for years the standard of beauty has not been that of the black woman…(we all know who i’m talking about)  instead we have been pushed to ‘conform’ to those standards without any second thoughts…i mean “white is right”…right….

black women are the only group of people  who have been unmercifully criticized for the hair that grows naturally from their scalp…we have been told that our natural locs are “uncivilized’ “ugly’ undesirable’…that in order to be anywhere near beautiful we’ll have to rock straight european hair or permanently straighten our own..it’s all psychological and from years and years of conforming. sadly the stigmas behind it all still have an effect on black women of today… 

it’s sad that the number of us who have gone natural are looked up to as ‘being brave’ or ‘being a leader….the fact that black women even had to “go natural” shows how much we’ve fucked up and how society has brainwashed us into believing we are less than on the beauty scale because of something God blessed us with…

what’s even more saddening, is not only do black women have to deal with the ignorance of other races not understanding our hair, but we also have to deal with the comments of black men who have fallen into the “bash black hair/beauty’ trap….the cycle never ends…

Even though the stigma behind wearing a weave is thought to be fueled by self hatred, on the complete opposite side of the spectrum some women wear weaves to better their natural hair…the elements can be SO harsh on black hair and sometimes it just needs a break. wearing a weave helps maintain hair growth while protecting it from the weather for months at a time.

Also some black women just love to change up their looks every once in awhile and they do so by wearing a weave because it’s much easier than dying, growing, or cutting their natural hair…so let them have fun expressing themselves…

in my experience, i’ve had multiple white women strictly assume that black women wear weaves to “get like them” 

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nope

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nuh uh

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don’t

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flatter

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 yourself

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honey

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i mean because

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black

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women

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are

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the only

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ones

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who

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do

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this shit

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right?

Bless this post! I’ve addressed this before and I’ll address it again. Compared to whites and asians, black women are new to the game. Whites and asians have been augmenting their hair for CENTURIES… So. Miss. Us. With. This. Shit.

knowledgeequalsblackpower:

marfmellow:

bellatriques-lastrenge:

sugako0kie:

earth-to-sierra:

WHY DO PEOPLE HATE HER.

because she transformed from an innocent child star into a normal adult and people can’t handle it

K she won me.

Miley Cyrus

  • Redface costume

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  • Repeated appropriation of bindis

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  • Her appropriative Dia De Los Muertos sugar skull costume, which she randomly mixed with a bunch of other unrelated symbolism

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you’re welcome

I’m less mad at her… less concerned with her…. more concerned that the audience is falling for this bullshit. Since when did white artists’ “Black phase” represent becoming an adult?!??!?!???????????????? 

pouring-heart:

niggaimdeadass:

highkeyghoul:

Fashion designer Allesandro Dell’Acquawith Dolce & Gabbana’s Stefano Gabbana and fashion publicist Juan Fran Sierra at a ‘Disco Africa’ party like….blackface

im sad

I cannot believe my eyes!!